Abstract: Western metaphysics is based on the opposition between reality and appearance. This construction essentially rests on a visual model. I am going to question the basis of this metaphysics, by affirming the reality of appearances and reflecting on their various uses, in particular artistic ones. This path will be taken in the first place by shifting the focus of philosophical analysis from visual to acoustic models. Thus I will envisage a possible renewed realism as a metaphysics of ‘echoes’ - as opposed to shadows.
Abstract: Hermann Lotze’s Logik (1874) is one of the most widely read philosophical works from the late 19th century to the early 20th century, and so its importance in the history of philosophy is unquestioned. A number of works which extensively deal with Lotze’s philosophy have been published in recent years. However, it seems that his theory of concepts in Logik, in particular, his remarks on conceptual formation and structure, has not been paid much attention in comparison with his famous theory of `validity.’ Although [Sluga1980] argues that Frege’s idea of concepts as functions is influenced by Lotze’s, a closer look reveals that there is a great difference between what they mean by `concepts as functions.’ While we do not agree with Sluga, we do not mean that Lotze is a mere antique. Indeed, we can recognize that the central features of his theory reappear in a more sophisticated way in the conceptual models used in current information science such as Knowledge Representation. In this talk, I’ll review the outline of Lotze’s theory of concepts, give it some formalization, and reevaluate its philosophical prospects.
Abstract: In her "Zur Ontologie und Erscheinungslehre der realen Außenwelt" in 1916, the Munich phenomenologist Hedwig Conrad-Martius provides a series of phenomenological descriptions of "the phenomena of the real outer-world". Even though her overt target here is (what she takes to be) positivism, it is almost certain that her discussion is part of an objection to her teacher in Göttingen. The aim of the present talk is to reconstruct two phenomenological arguments for realism from some of her relevant discussions in “Erscheinungslehre”, focusing in particular on those on tactile experience. While the first of those arguments, which I call Direct Argument, does not seem convincing enough, the second, Indirect Argument is more promising and worth taking seriously, or so I shall argue.
Abstract: The problem of abstracta after Locke’s general triangle was one of the themes shared in the Brentano School. Following Twardowski’s realistic turn, Meinong and Husserl developed theories of two distinct kinds of “abstract” objects: ideal Species and incomplete objects.
In this talk, I present an analysis of the Husserlian and the Meinongian abstract objects in terms of their kinds of generality and ontic status. These aspects are some possible “factors” or “formal factors” (Kurata 2017) of abstract objects.